Specific works are examined in light of their particular focus and relevance in drama and history.
Part II offers new insights into Schiller's aesthetics, his lyrical subjectivity, his significance for German authors and his relation to such German thinkers as Kant, Jung, and Schlegel. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview This volume demonstrates that many scholars and stage directors firmly believe Schiller is very much a writer for the twentieth century. Average Review.
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One of her major successes has been the Kofiko series onward , which centers around the antics of a mischievous monkey who gets involved in improbable situations, eventually coming out a hero. With the success of the Mischievous Kofiko series and The Adventures of Chipopo in Kungu , Borenstein-Lazar turned to writing stories with human protagonists such as Suleiman the Arab and his friend Dani the Israeli Alilot Suliman ve-Dani [Stories of Suliman and Dani], — as well as a series of books of a didactic nature dealing with the Jewish holidays, Shai la- H ag A present for the holidays, Galila Ron-Feder-Amit b.
Haifa, is another woman writer known for her adventure series built around brave young boys or heroic figures drawn from the pages of history. Yaldei ha-Shekhunah ba-Ma h teret The neighborhood kids in the underground, , for example, described the adventures of a group of young boys from Jerusalem in the pre-State underground during the Mandate for Palestine given to Great Britain by the League of Nations in April to administer Palestine and establish a national home for the Jewish people.
It was terminated with the establishment of the State of Israel on May 14, British Mandate , while the ten volumes of her Yeladim Almonim Unknown children , which appeared during the s, presented a group of child-protagonists who come to the aid of the underground fighters in their struggle against the British. Her popular Jinji Redhead series — , which extended over many volumes, attracted a large audience of children who wished to identify with the brave hero-detective and the exciting life of his band of friends.
Realistic historical adventure literature based on events and protagonists that are tied to a particular time and place is the continuation of a longstanding tradition, despite the fact that the style and language change in keeping with the spirit of the times and the tastes of the audience. A welcome refuge for young readers attracted to works of suspense, mystery and heroic deeds, this literary genre continues to exist alongside other forms of literature rescued from the clutches of nationalist-Zionist ideology. Esther Streit-Wurzel b. Peta h Tikvah, is among the most important and outstanding of the women authors writing in a realistic style for young people.
Her plots are closely connected with historical events, which serve as their backdrop. It is important to note here the shift from Zionist-historical realism to the portrayal of present-day reality. Devorah Omer b. Her skill at shaping characters drawn from the Israeli history books, or adolescent characters whose lives are interwoven with a particular time and place, have made her books popular among young people and adults alike.
It was published soon after as a book, followed by other volumes that described the adolescent struggles of the young girl in Israel and later in America, where she traveled with her parents. Ani Etgaber I shall overcome, portrays the life of a young girl stricken with polio who tries to overcome her limitations. Ha-Gevul she-ba-Lev Boundary of the heart, , which was awarded a Ministry of Education prize, describes the ties that develop between Israeli children and their Arab neighbors.
Omer describes the way in which he grew up in this unique family that forced itself to speak only Hebrew despite all the difficulties, the Ban; excommunication generally applied by rabbinic authorities for disciplinary purposes. In a similar vein, the work Sarah Giborat NILI Sarah, heroine of NILI, presented a portrait of a different fighter, Sarah Aaronsohn , whose life was a combination of love and battles, of dedication and self-sacrifice typical of the entire pioneer generation.
In the work of Omeis earned her the Israel prize for lifetime achievement. While the writers of realistic adventure literature directed their efforts at children who had already acquired reading skills, a number of women writers emerged who offered preschool non-readers the experience of the narrative short story, sometimes in verse and always accompanied by colorful illustrations.
Their works are characterized by a freedom from the constraints of time and place, a range of themes, and a worldview reflected in the personality of the child at the center of the story. Her reference work, Sifrut le-Gil ha-Rakh Literature for preschoolers , published in and , was a pioneer in its field. Herzliyyah, , including Michal be-Gan Yeladim Michal in kindergarten, ; Abba Sheli My dad , Ima Sheli My mom and Zerikah Injection , all from ; Le-Tayel Holekh Eran Eran goes for a walk, ; and Abba le- Z ava Holekh Dad goes to the army, , which describes the experience of a small boy who swallows his loneliness until the moment the front door opens and his father comes back from reserve duty into the arms of the son who missed him.
Some also have an added touch of humor, such as the stories of H annah Horn b. Hallo Hallo Abba Hello, hello, daddy, is her best-known work. Similarly, H aya Shenhav b. Her book Mi z Petel Raspberry juice, , which describes the difficulties on the road to friendship between a lion, a giraffe and a rabbit, who are all very different from one another, has become a classic of Israeli preschool literature. Also among the group of outstanding women authors writing for children are the poet Michal Snunit b. Ein ha- H oresh, , with her subtle, imaginative writing, and the poet-composer Datya Ben-Dor b.
The melodic songs and rhymes of Batya Ben-Dor are accompanied by a linguistic virtuosity that strikes the right balance between fun, humor, art and message. Ora Morag b. The s saw the appearance of poetry collections by two of the most outstanding women lyric poets in Israel. In contrast to Ravikovitch and Atar, most of whose works were aimed at adults, the poet and author Nurit Zar h i b.
Her uniqueness lies not only in the dozens of books she composed but in her poetic richness, her originality of expression and the depth of her work. Zar h i writes in various genres, including realism, fantasy, nonsense rhymes, meditative lyric poetry, picture books for children young and old and bibliotherapy literature.
In all of them, a child is paired with an adult, the latter always gaining some new food for thought.
Above all, what stands out in her work is the fact that these are not heroic child protagonists but rather struggling individuals who are total anti-heroes. Several of her works are a blend of realism and fantasy: Ha-Kursah ha-Mitnadnedet The rocking chair, ; Karon u-Shemo Makron Flar the train car, ; Yoni ve-ha-Sus Yoni and the horse, ; Ha-Masa bi-Frusah 1 The Voyage in Slice 1, , which describes the voyage of a grandmother and her grandson in a flying toaster; and Taninah , recounting in her typical style the tale of a witch who decides to live in an elevator.
The works of Nurit Zar h i not only represent a cross-section of genres in poetry and prose but also appeal to a wide range of ages, from young people who are able to appreciate the poetic beauty of a work such as Ha-Yeled ve-ha-Dov The boy and the bear, to preschoolers who follow the story with their eyes darting from text to picture. Alongside these clearly child-oriented stories are books with a message aimed at adults, although little ones can also enjoy the illustrations, for example: Kefafot Gloves, , an illustrated allegory of sorts for adults about the love between a male and female fox and the way in which they learn to accept their respective character flaws and to be what they are; or Ambatim Bathtubs, Through poems and stories filled with an original, singular visual-poetic richness, Nurit Zar h i spearheaded a trend revolving around the child-hero who observes with a critical eye the reality dictated to him by adults.
All of this is no longer rooted in a national-Zionist frame of reference whose slant is obvious from the choice of words , but in a context that is Israeli and at the same time universal; the use of non-standard Hebrew wipes away the final traces of collective ideology that the writers of the previous generation had sought to disseminate. Like Zar h i, Shlomit Cohen-Assif b. Holon, has continued to fashion the character of the child as the antithesis of the heroic figure in the nationalist adventure stories.
Her protagonists are sensitive dreamers and their world, laid before us in over forty books, is made up of realism, innocence and dreams. Children who offer criticism and expose the hypocrisy of the adult world in straightforward, less poeticized language, populate the poems of Hagit Benziman b.
Tel Aviv, , whose point of departure is bibliotherapeutic-psychological. Her books of poetry confer legitimacy on children, who are no longer willing to be the targets of adult criticism, turning it back upon those who first unleashed it. Ha- H ayah im ha-Kis The animal with a pouch, depicts ties of love, birth and family in a poetic manner through a kangaroo without a pouch who develops a connection with a female kangaroo who has a pouch, the latter becoming a mother and then a grandmother. The spirit of the times, with its emphasis on extreme individualism, liberalism, permissiveness and criticism, benefited from those women who speak the universal language of illustration.
Ruth Tzarfati b. The author and illustrator Alona Frankel b. Poland, , who immigrated to Israel in , is known for her small books geared to young children. Her illustrations, with their colorful, decorative character, seek through form and color to help the young child and its mother and father cope with basic realities. Sefer ha-Pilpilim The elephink book, draws associations between a family of elephants and a family of humans.
Sefer ha-Laylah Tov The goodnight book, helps lull the child to sleep. Like her earlier works, Sippur me-ha- H ayyim A true story, , a recipient of the Andersen Medal, confronts the child with the difficulties of reality, in this case the death of a bird.
Ora Chernov Eitan b. Tel Aviv, has illustrated dozens of books and won national and international recognition in the form of the Andersen Medal , the Ben-Yitzhak Prize and the Esther Rabinowitz award. Ora Ayal b. At the same time, what sets Ayal apart is her originality, the humor that suffuses her illustrations and the vitality of her protagonists. Of the works that she wrote and illustrated herself, the most famous is Ugebo The book translated into English about offers a wonderful description of a girl who imagines a chair for a dog, using color, form and movement.
These writers broke the bounds of nationalist ideology; even when they wrote realistic literature with a historic bent, they took a leaf from the adventure stories based on contemporary events. To mention just a few, there are Tamar Adar b. What the English reader of Homer has lost is not language, but Greek.