On Webb, see Loudoun to Cumberland, 5 Jan. French and Indian activities: Steele, Betrayals, 84—5. Ransom: Steele, Betrayals, French strength: Bougainville, Adventure, —3 entry of 29 July Indian participation: see ibid. Garrison strength: Steele, Betrayals, Gipson, Victorious Years, 79—81; Steele, Betrayals, —30 n. Steele, Betrayals, 98—9; Bougainville, Adventure, —60 entry of 3 Aug.
Quotation: G. Bartman to Monro, 4 Aug. Montcalm suggests surrender: Bougainville, Adventure, , —7 entries of 5 and 7 Aug. Eleven of twenty-one guns had split or exploded by the end of 7 Aug. Situation report: ibid. See Bougainville, Adventure, [entry of 22 Aug. Dawes Albany, , 42—3 entries of 10—19 Aug.
Captive returns: ibid. Connecticut response: Harold E. Militia at Fort Edward: Steele, Betrayals, Another witness estimated the number of militiamen who had reached Fort Edward by 15 Aug. Expense: Selesky, War and Society, Militia vs. Massachusetts Archives, vol.
Comparison to England: The authorized strength of the English militia was 32,, but the only time that more than 16, men actually served was at the height of the French invasion threat of Even at its theoretical maximum, the English militia would have amounted to less than 3. Abbott et al. Detachment to Charleston: Harry M. Abandonment of forts: Gipson, Victorious Years, 41—2. Washington to Stanwix, 8 Oct.
Wallace, King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung, — Philadelphia, , — Character of negotiations: Jennings, Empire of Fortune, — Julian S. Loudoun to Cumberland, 17 Oct. Resistance: ibid. Wine: ibid. For the strategic position of Cumberland and the provisions of the convention, see esp.
No regret: ibid. Ligonier: ibid. Ferdinand and Hanover: ibid.
Dawes, ed. Learned: Buell Memoirs of Putnam, Quotation: Dawes, Journal of Putnam, 50—2 entry of 2 Feb. Breach with Loudoun: Schutz, Pownall, —18 esp. Pownall to Loudoun, 15 Dec. Schutz, Pownall, —22; Pargellis, Loudoun, —2. Pitt to the governors of Mass. Bay, N. For the numbers of men voted, see the letters of various governors to Pitt in Pitt Corr. In Apr. See Horatio Sharpe to Pitt, 16 Mar. I have not been able to determine whether the estimate includes slaves enlisted in British West Indian regiments. Most of these enlistments occurred in the ethnically diverse Middle Colonies, especially Pennsylvania, where regular recruiters attracted substantial numbers of German-speaking colonists to the four-battalion 60th Regiment—the Royal Americans—in the early years of the war.
While the social contexts of war and military service have yet to be studied in Pennsylvania as thoroughly as in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Virginia, three factors a high level of indentured servitude among men in the military age range, a large concentration of young tenant farmers in the eastern part of the province, and a socioeconomic makeup strongly shaped by poorer German and Scotch-Irish immigrants would have tended to promote enlistment in the regular forces.
Yet American enlistees never filled the ranks as Braddock and Loudoun assumed they should. Unlike provincial units, which tended after to recruit close to their full complements, regular units remained chronically and indeed increasingly understrength throughout the war. Such deficiencies in volunteers were compensated for by a variety of expedients, but for the most part replacements came in the form of drafts from Irish regiments.
Thus, by Jan. More research needs to be done to clarify the social and economic contexts of colonial enlistment in regular regiments and to explore the wartime experiences of those soldiers.
Campbell generously allowed me to read the thesis prospectus April , which contains a sketch of his argument. New England enlistments: Abercromby to Pitt, 28 Apr. In the Virginia Regiment had come up to only 25 percent of its authorized strength; in , 41 percent; in , 55 percent. Less than 10 percent of the men in the army of reenlisted to serve in The Burgesses now revoked the statute placing bounties on enemy Indian scalps: the end of the fantasy that a war they were unwilling to finance as a public venture could somehow be carried on by private enterprise.
Quotation: Sir John St. Clair to Col.
Dictionary of National Biography, s. Canadian defense forces: George F. In practice the Canadian militia was much more effective than its counterpart in the British colonies and routinely detached men for service with expeditionary forces. Yet it was still a body mainly useful for home defense, for to remove any substantial number of men from availability for planting and harvest threatened the food supply of Canada, which was marginal at best. A minot was equivalent to about a third of a bushel. Rationing and expedient substitutes: Bougainville, Adventure, 71—2 22 Nov.
Horse meat: Stanley, New France, Horse meat was available because animals were slaughtered to conserve fodder. Protests: Bougainville, Adventure, 12 Dec. Dwindling rations, ibid.
Four-ounce bread ration: ibid. Inflation: ibid. Hoarding: Stanley, New France, — Although firing at extreme range, guns on Rattlesnake Hill would have enfiladed the French lines and quickly made them too risky to man. With too few provisions to withstand a siege, Montcalm would have been forced to withdraw; but the only escape was by boat, and even a few cannon atop the hill would have made a shambles of the embarkation.
Matthew Clark was, according to Capt. The British attacked with 15 battalions, or about 13, men, organized in 3 brigades; the French opposed them with 7 understrength regular battalions reinforced by troupes de la marine and Canadian militia for a total of fewer than 3, men. French order of battle: Bougainville, Adventure, —2 8 July Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Archelaus Fuller of Middleton, Mass. Windsor, Vt. Abercromby reported 1, regular casualties dead, 1, wounded, 29 missing and among the provincials 87 killed, wounded, 8 missing.
Godfrey, Pursuit of Profit, —5. Portugal, although a historic British ally, had remained neutral through most of the conflict. Only one British territory, Menorca , was in enemy hands. Perhaps as much as military victories, the highly atypical experience of prosperity in wartime—for British exports and reexports rose by a third during the war years, trade with the colonies increased to new levels with surges in demand for consumer goods, and the economy in general expanded as in no other military conflict—helped generate the sense of security that underlay this willingness to accept such increases in public indebtedness. This time the commanders changed their tactics.
The first battalion of the 42nd Foot the Black Watch lost killed and wounded, or half its strength. Allis, ed. A closer look at the Bible illuminates what Cleaveland and similarly minded New Englanders made of the defeat: when the Israelites complained to King Rehoboam that their burdens were too heavy, he took counsel not with the wise elders, but only with his boon companions.
My father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions. Bougainville, Adventure, 10 July ; 12 July ; 12 Aug. The Latin translates more literally as follows:.
Who was the leader? Who was the soldier? What was the spread-out, immense wood? Behold the sign! Behold the victor! This God, God himself triumphs. Montcalm had asked to be recalled after the victory of July 8. The unlikelihood of this request being granted made him despair of his chances to stave off the British in the coming year. Something of his state of mind can be deduced from the chimerical plan he began to formulate in the fall of Thinking of the Anabasis of Xenophon, he resolved to resist the expected invasion of the St.
Lawrence Valley, then to retreat westward at the head of as many regulars and troupes de la marine as he could save. After acquiring what support and provisions he could in the Illinois Country, he would descend the Mississippi and make his last stand in Louisiana. As usual Wolfe was trying to minimize the credit due to his superior officer and to emphasize his own role.
For a complete account, see J. Mackay Hitsman and C.
The British lost fifty dead the majority drowned , sixty-two wounded, one missing; the French lost a hundred killed and seventy captured. Disposition of defenders in Gipson, Victorious Years, — For the naval vessels in the harbor, a formidable force including six line-of-battle ships and five frigates, see Boscawen to Pitt, 28 July , Pitt Corr.
Since the landings, the British had lost just dead and sick or wounded; naval casualties numbered approximately Osborne and Hawke: ibid. Effectiveness of British naval interdiction: Ian K.
On 28 May , H.