Regional and Federal Studies 15 1 George S.
Green Cowles M. Caporaso J. Grosse T. Halkier H. Sagan I. Sagan H. Halkier eds. Regionalism Contested. Hamedinger A.
Bartik H. Wolffhardt A. Urban Studies 45 13 Wolffhardt eds.
Heinelt H. Niederhafner S. Heywood A. Hooghe L. Marks G. Jessop B.
Heinelt P. Getimis G. Kafkalas R. Smith E. Swyngedouw eds. Participatory Governance in Multi-Level Context. Klimczak T. Pylak K. Podyma D. Knodt M. Kohler-Koch B. Kohler-Koch ed. Kooiman J. This has negative effects on the possibilities of implementing policies that are made at a decentralized level. If the communities involved were able to provide some of the funds for decentralized government, this might increase the willingness of local government to listen to the demands of the community.
Decentralization can contribute to the improvement of governance in the areas of transparency, responsiveness to citizens, openness, accountability and flow of information Manor This would help create favourable conditions for PPM. Governance and decentralization are closely linked to another recent trend: rights approaches to development anchored in the international human rights system formed by the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and subsequent commitments made by government over the years.
A recent study Conway et al concludes that a rights approach has important implications for policy processes: "A rights approach draws attention to who does and does not have power, and how this affects the formulation and implementation of policy" p. This study identifies areas of complementarity of sustainable livelihoods approaches and rights approaches:.
Participatory Governance in Multi-Level Context. Concepts and Experience. Editors: Heinelt, H., Getimis, P., Kafkalas, G., Smith, R., Swyngedouw, E. (Eds.). Request PDF on ResearchGate | Participatory Governance in Multi-Level Context : Concepts and Experience | The book addresses.
By identifying groups lacking effective rights - and groups who may be denying rights to others - it can highlight the root causes of the generation and perpetuation of poverty and vulnerability. As such a rights approach provides one possible way of examining the operation of institutions and political processes Sustainable livelihoods analysis offers one way to prioritise efforts to obtain rights for poor groups.
The signing of international rights conventions or setting rights down on paper is, in itself, no guarantee a country will base its policies on these rights. However, rights on paper can be an entry point to work towards pro-poor policies and can open up spaces for PPM. Experience has shown that civil society organizations have often played a major role in "identifying key livelihood rights, pressing for them to be established in law, and subsequently ensuring that they are effectively enforced" Conway et al 4.
Functioning legal frameworks and institutions along with good laws are important both for implementing policy and creating an enabling environment for participation in the policy process FAO c. It is often observed that there are significant gaps between laws and their enforcement. However, "there is a danger in making too much of a distinction between legislation, on the one hand, and its implementation on the other.
While no one can reasonably deny that implementation of law requires attention to external economic, social and institutional factors, it is also true that law enforcement can be significantly influenced by the way legislation is drafted in the first place" Lindsay et al 2. Nevertheless, a functioning legal framework - institutional and judicial mechanisms - is crucial for ensuring the implementation of policies, rights and laws. On the one hand, a good legal framework will facilitate PPM and, on the other, efforts at policy reform may need to give attention to how legislation and legal frameworks will affect the implementation of policy.
Although literature on issues of accountability, monitoring and evaluation in policy processes is sparse, there is agreement that accountability, monitoring and evaluation are important elements in ensuring that policies are implemented effectively.
Narayan 17 distinguishes three main types of accountability mechanisms: political, administrative and public. Administrative accountability of government agencies is through internal accountability mechanisms, both horizontal and vertical within and between agencies. Public or social accountability mechanisms hold government agencies accountable to citizens. Citizen action or social accountability can reinforce political and administrative accountability mechanisms".
Access to information is a major prerequisite for people to hold accountable those responsible for implementing policy and to monitor and evaluate policy implementation and effectiveness. However, the few documented experiences of citizen monitoring have been mainly in the realms of public service delivery and public expenditure.
Recent thinking about participation, citizenship and accountability is opening up new dimensions of accountability that are relevant to PPM. As Gaventa says: "Changing meanings of rights and citizenship, as well as opening of new roles and spaces for citizen participation, raise critical questions about the ways in which civil society, state and market actors hold each other to account.
Rather than focusing simply on the role of the state in ensuring the rights of citizenship, new models of accountability are emerging which focus on the role of citizens themselves in monitoring the enforcement of rights, and in demanding public scrutiny and transparency" Gaventa 9.
Participation leads to the creation and sustenance of accountability. A sense of the right to accountability provides the basis on which citizens can act. It leads to openness and transparency in policy making.
Such accountability builds up social reciprocities characterized by equity, intergroup tolerance and inclusive citizenship. Responsive and active citizenship, in turn, results in meaningful participation" Tandon Sustainable livelihoods; lessons from early experiences. Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21 st century.
IDS Discussion Paper Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. London: Department for International Development. See the bibliography for other documents on the subject. Rights, claims and capture: Understanding the politics of pro-poor policy.
Working Paper London: Overseas Development Institute. Influencing policy processes for sustainable livelihoods: Strategies for Change.