Erythrocytes of the Rhesus and Cynomolgus Monkeys

Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions
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Eur J Immuno l, 22 8 : Isotype-specific detection of ABO blood group antibodies using a novel flow cytometric method [J].

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Br J Haematol , 6 : Tanabe K. Transplantation , 84 12 Suppl : S Detection of ABO group-specific substances on the red cells of the cynomolgus monkey [J]. Jpn J Med Sci Biol , 34 1 : The simian-type M and the human-type ABO blood groups in the African green monkey Cercopithecus aethiops : their inheritance, distribution and significance for the management of a breeding colony [J].

Lab Anim , 22 4 : Related Articles 6. Animal models of human diseases [J]. Zoological Research, , 32 1 : Progress of non-human primate animal models of cancers [J].

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Sleep disorder, a potential early diagnostic marker for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases [J]. Progress on nonhuman primate models of diabetes mellitus [J]. Viewed Full text. Recommended Zoological Research, , 28 1 : 24 Zoological Research, , 28 1 : 28 Zoological Research, , 10 1 : 23 Zoological Research, , 10 1 : 31 Zoological Research, , 10 1 : 37 Zoological Research, , 10 1 : 51 Zoological Research, , 10 1 : 45 Zoological Research, , 3 zk : 37 Zoological Research, , 1 2 : Spontaneous hemolytic anemia is a condition which is rarely reported in nonhuman primates.

Causes of hemolytic anemia are varied and may include: drug administration cephalosporins, dapsone, phenazopyridine, etc. The following report describes a suspected case of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in a female juvenile rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta. JK83, a 3-y-old Indian origin female rhesus macaque with a history of diarrhea, presented to the breeding colony hospital for evaluation of weakness.

On physical examination, the following abnormalities were noted: pale pink to white mucous membranes, a 5 cm circular patch of alopecia with central exfoliative dermatitis on the craniodorsal midline, and a Grade I apical systolic heart murmur on auscultation. Urinalysis revealed a marked hemoglobinuria with the presence of cellular casts noted.

Abdominal radiographs revealed a generalized loss of serosal detail in the abdomen and a mild bronchial pattern in the cranial lung lobes bilaterally.

All internal organs appeared grossly normal. A bone marrow biopsy was taken from the right femur, and the animal was recovered. The bone marrow biopsy revealed a severe erythroid hyperplasia M:E approx which is consistent with the regenerative response observed in the CBC. The animal was administered buprenorphine and immunosuppressive doses of dexamethasone and is currently responding very well to this treatment.

Further diagnostics to determine the full etiology of this anemic episode are pending.

Rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta live in social groups with a strict behavioral code of conduct and social hierarchy to ensure stability. Trauma is a common sequela to maintaining order, often necessitating antibiotic therapy. First-generation cephalosporins are commonly used twice daily minimally for 5 d.

This routine may have both animal welfare implications increased stress, distress, and time away from the social group and management implications increased time, supplies, and occupational risk.

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Plasma ceftiofur metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to drug administration and for up to 21 d post. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The area under the curve was No adverse effects were noted after drug administration at either dose.

An adult rhesus macaque developed chronic, intermittent anemia after transfer from a south Texas facility. The macaque is generally asymptomatic, although mild fever is occasionally appreciated on physical exam.

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Complete blood counts have demonstrated a macrocytic, hyperchromic anemia. Abnormal red blood cell morphology was noted on peripheral blood smears prompting further evaluation. Review of thin peripheral blood smears revealed small intraerythrocytic inclusions. Whole blood was submitted for polymerase chain reaction pending. Several parasites have been reported to infect the red blood cells of nonhuman primates, including Plasmodium and Babesia spp. Hemoplasma and Babesia are of main concern based on history and geographic location.

A 6-y-old male rhesus monkey presented with an abnormal gait which consisted of a scooting-like quality of the hindlimbs. This animal was a recipient of an adjuvant and then later an adeno-associated viral vector as part of a hemophilia gene-transfer model. Clinical signs developed 3 y following experimental manipulation and included enlarged lymph nodes and bilaterally abnormal stifel joints.

We house more than 16, cynomolgus monkeys. While this may look like a big challenge for the veterinary staff, it does have the advantage of, once in a while, exposing us to some very rare and odd pathological cases. In this presentation we will browse through a few of these oddities and rarities.

Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

Genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex MHC of nonhuman primates negatively affects interpretation of immunologic data from infectious disease and transplant medicine studies. The ability to select individual animals with known MHC haplotypes for inclusion in studies reduces data variability, allows for more targeted study design, and permits identification of more subtle differences between experimental groups.

Immunogenetic management software IMS was developed to manage MHC haplotype, MHC expression, and pedigree data in large nonhuman primate NHP colonies being used in infectious disease and transplant medicine studies and to facilitate targeted subject selection. Blood collected at semiannual health monitoring surveys was used for DNA extraction to determine MHC haplotypes, flow cytometry to quantify T-lymphocyte subpopulations, and quantitative RT-PCR to determine viral loads. Within the animals included in this study, we identified 74 unique MHC haplotypes.

No significant differences were observed in T-lymphocyte population characteristics among identified MHC haplotypes.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs frequently in humans and is associated with genetic diseases of connective tissue, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, and atherosclerosis. Naturally occurring aortic aneurysm has been described in mustached tamarins, owl monkeys, and one case of a mangabey with ruptured mycotic aneurysm. Here we present 3 cases of spontaneous thoracic aortic aneurysm in cage-housed, aged sooty mangabeys.

Case 1 was a y-old, SIV negative, male mangabey that presented with weight loss and diarrhea. Physical examination revealed no cardiac abnormalities. Laboratory diagnostics on blood, feces, and urine were unremarkable. Thoracic radiographs revealed a widened mediastinal silhouette with an enlargement of the proximal aorta.

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The animal was euthanized due to progressive weight loss. Postmortem examination revealed a focal dilatation of the ascending aorta and multifocal yellow plaques on the intimal surface of the aorta and iliac arteries. Histopathologic evaluation revealed moderate multifocal atherosclerosis of the aorta and iliac arteries and minimal cardiac fibrosis. Case 2 was a y-old, naturally-infected SIV positive, male mangabey that died acutely with no preceding clinical signs. The animal showed no clinical signs of AIDS, however he had been receiving antiretroviral medications as part of an approved research protocol.

A physical examination performed 9 d prior to his death was unremarkable, however a complete blood count collected at that time showed mild polycythemia hemoglobin of Postmortem examination revealed an ascending aortic aneurysm, severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricle myocardial infarct and rare aortic intimal atherosclerosis. Histopathologic evaluation revealed severe myocyte disarray, cardiac interstitial fibrosis, and multifocal adventitial hemorrhage at the aortic aneurysm site.

Case 3 was a y-old, naturally infected SIV positive, diabetic female mangabey that presented for weight loss. Physical examination revealed no cardiac abnormalities, but thoracic radiographs revealed a widened mediastinal silhouette with increased opacity cranial to the heart. A complete blood count revealed polycythemia hemoglobin of The animal was euthanized due to progressive diabetes mellitus.

The aortic arch was markedly dilated with multifocal intimal atherosclerosis noted at postmortem examination. Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of aortic aneurysm in humans and has been reported to occur naturally in several nonhuman primate species, including squirrel monkeys and cynomolgus macaques. It is unclear if the same risk factors for humans also contribute to thoracic aortic aneurysm development in mangabeys.

Further investigation into the pathogenesis of this condition is planned, but aortic aneurysm should be considered as a differential diagnosis in mangabeys with non-specific clinical signs. Integrated medicine combines alternative medicine with western evidence-based medicine. This whole animal approach focuses on overall health rather than just treating the disease. By integrating medicine, one is combining Eastern with Western medicine. A y-old female chimpanzee sustained injuries in a social group altercation that needed medical attention. On examination, there were multiple lacerations but the most severe were the ocular lesions of lacerations to the commissures of the left eyelid and a corneal scratch.

A y-old female African green monkey presented with bilateral swellings just cranial to the pelvis on either side of the abdomen. The swellings were identified as hernias of the abdominal wall, with one side reducible and one side non-reducible. Abdominal palpation was normal at that time, and the animal appeared otherwise healthy.

Handlebar hernias are abdominal wall hernias resulting from direct trauma to the anterior abdominal wall, usually at weak anatomic locations. The insertion of the abdominal muscles appeared to have been partially avulsed from the iliac crest. Surgical repair of the hernias was accomplished by debridement of the tissue edges and primary closure with stainless steel suture in the muscle fascia and periosteum of the ilium.

Approximately 6 wk following initial presentation the animal presented for a routine physical and was discovered to be approximately 8 wk pregnant. It was concluded that the hernias were likely the result of rough treatment by the male during breeding. Little published information exists regarding the use and effects of anesthetic agents in galagos. Our annual galago physical examination and tuberculosis testing are routinely performed under ketamine anesthesia.

Our objective in this study was to refine injectable anesthesia by reducing anesthetic and recovery times during the annual health assessment. We evaluated anesthetics including a combination of ketamine a dissociative agent and dexmedetomidine an alpha2- adrenergic agonist with the reversal agent atipamezole an alpha2- adrenergic antagonist compared to ketamine alone.

In total, 50 galagos were given health assessments and TB tests while under anesthesia.

Thirty-nine galagos 17 males, 22 females were anesthetized with ketamine 2. Longer average induction times were observed with the ketamine-dexmedetomidine min versus ketamine injection min. The combination drug protocol reduced the average time from anesthesia to recovery from 37 to 13 min. Heart rates of those animals under the dual agent were roughly half those of the ketamine group versus beats per min.

Based upon clinical assessment, galagos under ketamine-dexmedetomidine anesthesia were judged to have greater muscle relaxation, greater loss of reflexes, and a smoother recovery with less salivation when compared to the ketamine group.

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The greater muscle rigidity detected in the ketamine group hindered palpation and range of motion assessments. Single agent ketamine did not uniformly eliminate palpebral movement. Eyelid movement is a disadvantage as the superior lid is the preferred location for intradermal skin testing. Based upon our initial experience, ketamine-dexmedetomidine-atipamezole used in combination offers significant advantages over single agent ketamine in galagos.

Olive baboons OB are attractive animals to model pulmonary diseases of humans. For complete quantitative evaluation of lung function, sedation and induction of apnea are required. The consistent induction of apnea with the standard method of hyperventilation is not always possible in subjects with severe lung disease and high level of spontaneous ventilation.